Cyanobacteria & Cyanotoxins

Over the past decade, cyanobacteria blooms have emerged as an important issue in the water and wastewater industry. Information has been collected pertaining to health concerns, control strategies, and treatment effectiveness for professionals in the water sector.

Visit our online library’s main webpage to find more resources on topics related to drinking water.

Apps and Tools

CyAN App User’s Guide: Android Application Manual

CyAN Mobile App Helps Communities Detect Cyanobacteria in U.S. Water Bodies

Cyanobacteria Assessment Network App (CyAN app) Fact Sheet

Cyanobacteria Assessment Network Mobile Application (CyAN app)

CyanoTox® 3.0 Download

Cyanotoxin Oxidation Testing Protocol

Mobile device application for monitoring cyanobacteria harmful algal blooms using Sentinel-3 satellite Ocean and Land Colour Instruments

PAC Calculator for Cyanotoxin Removal

PAC Jar Testing Protocol for Cyanotoxin Removal in Drinking Water

Fact Sheets

Blue-green algae

Cyanobacteria & Cyanotoxins

Cyanobacteria in freshwater fact sheet

Drinking Water Health Advisories for Two Cyanobacterial Toxins

Drinking Water Health Advisory for the Cyanobacterial Microcystin Toxins

Drinking Water Health Advisory for the Cyanobacterial Toxin Cylindrospermopsin

Health Effects Support Document for the Cyanobacterial Toxin Cylindrospermopsin

Health Effects Support Document for the Cyanobacterial Toxin Microcystins

Information About Blue-Green Algae: Background, potential impacts to human health and safety of drinking water

Information on Blue Green Algae

Irrigating Food Crops with Water Containing Cyanobacteria Blooms

Microcystin Degredation by Chemical Oxidation

Small Systems and Cyanotoxins


Algae identification – field guide : an illustrative field guide on identifying common algae found in the Canadian prairies

Algae identification – lab guide : accompanying manual to the algae identification field guide

Algal Toxin Risk Assessment and Management Strategic Plan for Drinking Water

A Water Utility Manager’s Guide to Cyanotoxins

Cyanobacteria and Drinking Water: Occurrence, Risks, Management and Knowledge Gaps for Public Health

Cyanobacteria in Freshwater

Decision protocols for cyanobacterial toxins in BC drinking water and recreational water

Drinking Water Health Advisory Documents for Cyanobacterial Toxins

Field and laboratory guide to freshwater cyanobacteria harmful algal blooms for Native American and Alaska Native Communities

Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality: Guideline Technical Document – Cyanobacterial Toxins

Toxic cyanobacteria in water : a guide to their public health consequences, monitoring and management

Visual Identification of Cyanobacteria Blooms (also referred to as blue-green algae blooms)


Algal Blooms in Ontario Lakes

Algae Blooms in Ontario’s Lakes: Analyzing the trends

Blue-Green Algae Blooms in Ontario’s Lakes

Challenges and a Pilot Study on Cyanobacteria and Small Drinking Water Systems

Challenges to Treat Cyanotoxins from Drinking Water on a Large, Small and Household Scale

Cyanobacteria and Drinking Water: Occurrence, risks, management and knowledge gaps for public health

Cyanobacteria and Toxins – Healthy Lakes and Inland Watercourse Public Information Session

Cyanobacteria in the Province of Ontario – Healthy Lakes and Inland Watercourse Public Information Session

Destruction of Cyanotoxins by Chemical Oxidation Treatment Processes

EPA Health Advisories for Cyanotoxins

Managing Algal Blooms in Drinking Water using Watershed-Scale Approaches

Removal of Blue-Green Algae and Toxins by Small Water System Technologies

Removing Cyanobacteria and Microcystins Using Small System Technologies

Understanding the ecology and monitoring tools for cyanobacteria blooms impacting a water treatment plant


Challenges to Treat Cyanotoxins from Drinking Water on a Large, Small and Household Scale

Small Systems Technology Assessment for Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxin Removal


Cyanobacterial Blooms and Cyanotoxins

Cyanobacterial Blooms and Cyanotoxins: Analytical Methods

Cyanobacterial Blooms and Cyanotoxins: General Treatment

Cyanobacterial Blooms and Cyanotoxins: Oxidation Treatment

How to analyze  for cyanotoxins using the Microcystin-LR equivalence ELISA method

Understanding Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins


Algal Toxins – Source Water Management and Treatment

Controlling Algae in Water Treatment Plants

Cyanobacteria and their toxins in Canadian waters: guidelines from Health Canada

Hyperspectral Characterization of Harmful Algal Blooms

Managing and Mitigating Cyanotoxins in Water Supplies

Managing Intracellular Cyanotoxin Release During Oxidation Processes in Drinking Water

Managing the Impacts of Algal Blooms in Drinking Water Treatment Plants

Predictive Analytics Of Harmful Algae Blooms

Preparing for and Mitigating Algae Blooms and Cyanotoxins — The Utility Perspective


Blue-Green Algae and Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)

Blue-green algae (cyanobacteria): a guide

Cyanobacteria in Freshwater

Cyanobacteria and Drinking Water Webinar Recording

Cyanobacteria – Tapping into the risks to drinking water

Ultrasound for the control of cyanobacteria

Abstracts & Articles

Acute animal and human poisonings from cyanotoxin exposure — A review of the literature

A Costly Endeavor: Addressing Algae Problems in a Water Supply

A Cyanotoxin Primer for Drinking Water Professionals

Analysis of cyanobacterial metabolites in surface and raw drinking waters reveals more than microcystin

A review of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins removal/inactivation in drinking water treatment

Biodegradation of microcystin-LR by indigenous mixed bacterial populations

Blooming algae: a Canadian perspective on the rise of toxic cyanobacteria

Cyanobacterial detection using in vivo fluorescence probes: Managing interferences for improved decision‐making

Cyanobacteria: Rising to the Surface of Emerging Challenges

Cyanobacterial Toxins of the Great Lakes, Their Toxicological Effects, and Numerical Limits in Drinking Water

Cyanotoxins and Cyanobacteria Cell Accumulations in Drinking Water Treatment Plants with a Low Risk of Bloom Formation at the Source

Effects Of Algae Blooms On A Water Treatment Plant

Efficient removal of microcystin-LR by UVC/ H2O2 in synthetic and natural water samples

Estimation of Phytoplankton Chlorophyll-a Concentration in the Western Basin of Lake Erie Using Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3 Data

Evaluating expected microcystin removal at three Ontario drinking water treatment plants

Everything a Manager Should Know About Algal Toxins but Was Afraid to Ask

Fluorescence as a Surrogate for the Release of Intracellular Material From Cyanobacteria

Granular Activated Carbon for the Removal of Seasonally Present Microcystin-LR

Harmful Algae Blooms: Management of Cyanotoxins in Drinking Water Treatment

Health-Based Cyanotoxin Guideline Values Allow for Cyanotoxin-Based Monitoring and Efficient Public Health Response to Cyanobacterial Blooms

Impacts of Potassium Permanganate and Powdered Activated Carbon on Cyanotoxin Release

Low‐risk cyanobacterial bloom sources: Cell accumulation within full‐scale treatment plants

Managing drinking water supplies. Lake and reservoir management

Microcystin and Microcystis Destruction by Ozone in Drinking Water Treatment: Constraints and Effects

Microcystin in Ugandan lakes: Production dynamics, accumulation in fish, and risk evaluation

Microcystin-LR adsorption by powdered activated carbon

Mitigating harmful cyanobacterial blooms: Strategies for control of nitrogen and phosphorous loads

Molecular characterization of potential geosmin-producing cyanobacteria from Lake Ontario

Neurotoxic cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) toxicosis in Ontario

Ozonation of NOM and algal toxins in four treated waters

Phosphorus Sequestration for Control of Cyanobacterial Growth in Drinking Water Reservoirs

Proposed nutrient criteria for water supply lakes and reservoirs

Release and Removal of Microcystins from Microcystis during Oxidative-, Physical-, and UV-Based Disinfection

Surveillance for Harmful Algal Bloom Events and Associated Human and Animal Illnesses — One Health Harmful Algal Bloom System, United States, 2016–2018

Taste and Odor Production in Reservoirs by Blue‐Green Algae

The ability of household pitcher-style water purifiers to remove microcystins depends on filtration rate and activated carbon source

Toxin-producing cyanobacteria in freshwater: a review of the problems, impact on drinking water safety and efforts for protecting public health

Treatment of the Cyanotoxin Anatoxin-a via Activated Carbon Adsorption

Treatment of the Cyanotoxins Cylindrospermopsin, Microcystin-LR, and Anatoxin-a by Activated Carbon in Drinking Water

Ultrasonic Treatment of Algae in a New Jersey Reservoir

Use of Potassium Permanganate for Control of Problem Algae

Using activated carbon to remove toxicity from drinking water containing cyanobacterial blooms

Using Coagulation, Flocculation, and Settling to Remove Toxic Cyanobacteria

Vertical Profiling Safeguards Drinking Water and Sheds Light on Cyanobacteria

Vulnerability of Quebec drinking-water treatment plants to cyanotoxins in a climate change context